What is law according to Austin?
John Austin propounded the Analytical School of law and supported the Positivism Theory. Austin defined law as, “Law is a command of the sovereign backed by a sanction.” His notion was that where there is no sovereign, there is no independent political society and vice versa is also applicable.
Imperative Theory of Law in its simplest terms can be defined as “command of the sovereign backed by sanction”. Imperative theory says that law is whatever the political sovereign of a certain state says law is. This law needs to be backed by legitimate sanction, that is punishment or penalty for violation.
Given Austin's belief in divine law and the obligation that subjects have to obey the laws of their superiors, Austin applies utilitarian theory only to the portion of acts that are not covered by the revealed will of God "The whole of our conduct should be guided by the principle of utility, in so far as the conduct ...
Commands, according to Austin, always involve three things (Austin  1955, 17): a desire concerning someone's behavior. an expression of that desire. a sanction, threatened harm for non-compliance.
AUSTIN AND LEGAL POSITIVISUM Austin is very famous due to his best views related to positive law and due to his “Legal positivism” theory and often called the “command theory of law” because the concept of command lies at is essential: law is the command of the sovereign, backed by a threat of sanction in the event of ...
They are Natural, Positive, Marxist, and Realist Law theories.
law, the discipline and profession concerned with the customs, practices, and rules of conduct of a community that are recognized as binding by the community. Enforcement of the body of rules is through a controlling authority.
: a binding custom or practice of a community : a rule of conduct or action prescribed (see prescribe sense 1a) or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authority. (2) : the whole body of such customs, practices, or rules. The courts exist to uphold, interpret, and apply the law.
By “Eternal Law'” Aquinas means God's rational purpose and plan for all things. And because the Eternal Law is part of God's mind then it has always, and will always, exist. The Eternal Law is not simply something that God decided at some point to write.
621, lines 13–14), Augustine equates the eternal law with both the reason and the will of God: “Truly the eternal law is the divine reason or the will of God, commanding the natural order to be preserved … ” In 22.30 (p.